To what extent steroid hormones contribute to lung cancer in male and female never smokers and smokers is unclear. We examined expression of hormone receptors in lung tumors by sex and smoking. Linear regression was used to examine differences in expression by sex and smoking status. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate survival associated with the receptors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Although lung cancer incidence in US women has plateaued and showed a trend of decline since the mids 1 , incidence rates in younger women in the United States and other parts of the world are increasing 2.
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To the Editor. Another recent article is also consistent with their findings. First, the time to conceive used by the authors may have been artifactually lengthened by their considering sporadic use of contraceptives as half cycles, with rounding down to the nearest full cycle. Since smokers used contraceptives sporadically 1.
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Language: English Portuguese. To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers FSWs. This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Thomas V. Several studies 1— 4 have reported that the relative risk of cancer in smokers, compared with nonsmokers, is greater in women than in men. These results have led to speculations about the biologic mechanisms underlying this difference, such as a molecular interaction between sex hormones and tobacco carcinogens. The news media have echoed widely such results, perhaps because anything suggesting that women and men are inherently different strikes a chord among the public.